What is a Noun ? – Types of Noun Complete Guide

What is Noun?

Types of Noun in English
A Complete Guide of Noun and their Types Explain with the Examples
  1. Singular and Plural Noun
  2. Common and Proper Noun
  3. Countable Uncountable Noun
  4. Abstract Noun
  5. Material Noun
  6. Concrete Noun
  7. Gender Noun
  8. Collection Noun
  9. Compound Noun

“Noun refers to words that are used to name of person, things, animals, places, ideas and events”.

Examples:

Persons Ali Irfan Rehman Lora
Things Furniture Computer Rice Tea
Animals Hen Horse Lion Mouse
Places Lahore Islamabad Karachi Maree
Ideas Knowledge Wisdom Research Safety
Events Marriage Party Birthday Holiday

Types of Noun Complete Guide Step by Step

1. Singular and Plurals Noun:

Singular Noun: 

         When a Noun refers to single person, things, place, idea and animal it is called singular Noun.

Plural Noun:

         When a noun refers to many persons things, animals and ideas, it is called plural Noun.

Regular Nouns:

            Most singulars nouns from the plural by adding “S”

Examples:

Singulars Plurals
Boat Boats
House Houses
Cat Cats
River Rivers
A Car Two Cars
A lamp Two Lamps
A Hat Two Hats
A Cup Two Cups

A singular noun ending in S, X, Z, CH, SH makes the Plurals by adding ES

Examples:

Singulars Plurals
Bus Buses
Wish Wishes
Pitch Pitches
Box Boxes
A Rose Two Roses

A singular noun ending in Consonant and then “Y” makes the Plural by dropping the “Y” and adding ‘’IES’’ with out (A,E,I,O,U)

Examples:

Singulars Plurals
Penny Pennies
Spy  Spies
Baby Babies
City Cities
Dairy Dairies
Lady Ladies
Beauty Beauties

Y after Vowel (A, E, I, O, U)

Add “S” after Vowel

Boy             Boys           Day             Days

Nouns ending in “F” add “S” and “Ves”

Roof           Roofs          thief  Thieves      Wife  Wives         Shelf          Shelves

Knife           Knives        Wolf Wolves       Leaf   Leaves

Nouns ending in “O”

Add “S”

Disco          Discos        Piano          Pianos        Photo         Photos

Add “ES”  

Tomato      Tomatoes  Potato        Potatoes    Hero Heroes

Irregular Nouns:

         Few nouns change their singular by replacing the inside vowel to from a plural.

Singulars Plurals Singulars Plurals
Woman Women Man Men
Child Children Tooth Teeth
Person People Leaf Leaves
Mouse Mice Goose Geese
Half Halves Knife Knives
Life Lives Potato Potatoes
Focus Foci Tomato Tomatoes
Syllabus Syllabi Analysis Analyses

Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural

Example:

Singulars Plurals Singulars Plurals
Sheep Sheep Fish Fish
Deer Deer Species Species
Aircraft Aircraft Economics Economics
Politics Politics Series Series
Army Army Class Class
Club Club Company Company
Party Party Staff Staff

Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb

Example:

  • News
  • Athletics
  • Darts
  • Physics
  • States

Some nouns have a fixed plural form and take plural verb

  • Jeans
  • Trousers
  • Glasses

2. Common and Proper nouns

Proper Noun:

  • A noun that refers to specific (usually a one of a kind) of item, or particular name of person, place, or things. Proper nouns always start with a capital letter no matter where it occurs in a sentence or not.

Examples:

Rahim is a good student.

Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.

America is developed country.

Rahim, Islamabad, or America is the Proper Nouns because it refers to particular name of person, place or things.

Proper nouns are normally used with:

  • Days of the Week: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday
  • Months: Janvary, February, March,
  • Name of Companies: Amazon, coca Cola, Google
  • Countries, towns: England, Canada, Francisco
  • Books, Films, or prizes: the bible the noble prize
  • Name of Peoples: Tim smith, Jennie Baker
  • Famous People: Napoleon, Shakespeare, Quid e azam

Common Noun:

  • A common noun is the word used for a class of person, place, or things.
  • A common noun is a general name for the same kind of things, person, or place.
  • Common noun do no refers to any particular things, person, or place. Common nouns are spelled in small letters.

Examples:

Ali is my friend.

Kashmir is beautiful city.

K2 is a highest mountain.

Friend, City, or Mountain is a common noun because it is used for common things, place, or person.

Common Noun Proper Noun
Writer Shakespeare
Document Declaration of independence
School Punjab
Restaurant Bandu Khan
Teacher The Holy Prophet

3. Countable and uncountable Nouns

Countable Nouns:

  • Nouns are word can be counted. They have a singular and plural form. They usually refer to things.
  • Countable nouns are things we can count using Number.
  • Separate object, People and Concepts. We can count countable nouns. They are separate objects.

Examples:

Chairs Bottle Students Dog
Man House Table Apple

Most countable nouns become plural by adding “S” at the end of the word.

Example:

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Chair Chairs Bottle Bottles
Student Students One dog Two dogs
Horse Horses Man Two men
One idea Two ideas Shop Shops

The Singular form can use the determiner “A” or “AN” if you want to ask about the Quantity of a countable Nouns, you ask “How many”? combined with plural countable noun.

We can use the article “a/an” in a singular:

Example:

  • I own a house
  • I have an apple
  • He served me a sandwich

Countable noun is a singular and a plural form.

The apple is very nice.

The apples are very nice.

Uncountable Nouns:

  • Anything that cannot be counted is an uncountable noun. Therefore, they only have a singular form.
  • Uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot count with Numbers. They are in a liquids, powers and gases shape.
  • Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc, we cannot divide into separate elements.
  • Uncountable nouns are the names of materials, liquids concepts, collection mess objects without boundaries. The have a singular form.

Examples:

Advice Blood Coffee Food
Ice Meat Music Paper
Rice Snow Wine Air
Butter Education Furniture Information
Milk News Sugar Wood
Alcohol Cheese Flour Grass
Luggage Money Oxygen Rain

We cannot use “a/an” with these nouns to express a quantity of an uncountable noun, use a word or expression like “Some”, a lot of, much, a bit of, a great deal of, also use an exact measurement like a cup of, 1 kg of, an hour of,

If you ask about the quantity of an uncountable to ask, “How Much”?

Examples:

  • There has been a lot of research into the causes of this disease.
  • He gave me a great deal of advice before my interview.
  • Can you give me some information about the uncountable noun.
  • He did not have much
  • Measure 1 cup of water 300 gm
  • How much rice do you want.
  • He gave me some good advice.
  • Can I have Some

Some nouns are both Countable and uncountable.

Examples:

  • You have got some hairs on your T shirt. (there might be 5 or 6 of them)
  • Your hair looks lovely (here you think of the hair style).
  • Bowl of rice
  • Slice of bread
  • Piece of cheese

Sometime we use uncountable noun like a countable noun

Example “Water”

Water is an uncountable noun because it is liquid. We cannot count water.

We say

Do you want some water. We don’t say

Do you want a Water.

But

I have talk about a glass of water. Then we can says

Do you want a glass of water.

It is because the glass is a countable.

Uncountable noun only have a singular form. Therefore, we use singular verb.

Example:

The Pasta is very nice. Correct

The pasta are very nice. Wrong

The news is good. Correct

The news are good. Wrong

4. Abstract nouns
  • An abstract noun is the name given to a quality, a state or a concept and feeling or actions.
  • It refers to things that we can neither touch nor see, though we can think of them.
  • An abstract noun is a quality or something that we can only think of rather them as something that we can see, touch.

Examples

Words like clever, honesty, happiness etc.

We can describe a person using qualities like brave, strong, or wise, courage, creativity, friendship, happiness, honesty, kindness, love and truth

We can also think of these quality like, bravery, strength and wisdom independence of any particular person or things.

Quality State Action
Goodness Childhood Laughter
Kindness Youth Theft
Honesty Slavery Judgement
Bravery Sleep hatred
Wisdom Sickness Fight
Darkness Death Thought

Abstract nouns are formed using adjective, verb and common noun.

Adjectives Abstract noun
Kind Kindness
Honest Honesty
Long Longevity
Verb Abstract nouns
Obey Obedience
Grow Growth
Punish Punishment
Common Nouns Abstract nouns
Child Children
Slave Slavery
Mother Motherhood

Examples:

  • He was given an award for his courage.
  • His art teacher happy with his creativity.
  • Your friendship is one of my favorite point of the day.
  • She thought that the happiness was the most imported things in life.
5. Material Noun:
  • Material Nun are names of materials from which things are made.
  • Substance a material or an ingredient we can see and touch which is used formatting things.
  • Material noun is a type of common noun

Examples:

Water (made up of tea)

Paper, iron, gold, coal, wheat and rubber

Material noun can be grouped into the following categories.

Materials: iron gold platinum wood plastic and paper

Products measured in bulk: tea sugar rice wheat

Geological bodies: mud sad

Material Phenomena: rain dew cloud frost might

Items Manufactured: Clothes paint chairs house

6. Concrete Nouns
  • Refers to the name of something or someone that we experience through our sense sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste
  • It is a type of common noun.

Examples

Cat, boy, table, chair, bus and building.

Difference between concrete nouns and abstract noun:

  • Concrete noun refers to the name of something or someone that we experience through our senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste.
  • Abstract noun is the name given to a quality a state or a concept. It refers to things that we cannot touch or see. We can think of them.
Concrete nouns Abstract nouns
President Honesty
Teacher Dedication
Cat Lazy
Police Fought
Music Relaxation
7. Gendered Nouns
  • Noun that distinguishes between male and female’s called
  • There are three genders properly so called: Masculine, Feminine and Neuter. The distinction of male and female in nature is called Sex. The distinction between Masculine and Feminine in word is called
  • Nouns answer the questions “what is it” and “who is it” They give the names to things, people, and places.
  • Gender is a system of differentiating nouns and pronouns as Masculine, Feminine, Neuter or Common.

Masculine Gender:

         A Noun that denotes a male animal is called Masculine gender.

Examples:

Boy Man Brother Hero Cock Bull
Lion Drake Drone

Feminine Gender

A noun that donates a female animal is called a feminine gender.

Girl Sister Hen Lioness Women Heroine
Cow Duck Bee

Common Gender

A noun that denotes a gender that is either a female or male is called Common Gender.

Examples:

Parent Child Servant Cousin Friend
Crowed

Neuter Gender

A noun that denotes a gender that is neither a female nor a male is called as a neural gender.

Pen Book Chair Tree Room
  • In general there is no distinction between Masculine, Feminine in English nouns. However, gender is sometimes show by different from or different words when referring to people or animals.

Examples

Masculine Feminine Gender Natural
Man Woman Person
Father Mother Parent
Boy Girl Child
Husband Wife Spouse
Actor Actress
Prince Princess
Waiter Waitress Server
Rooster Hen Chicken
  • Many Nouns that refer to people’s role and jobs can be used for either a Masculine or Feminine.

Examples:

Cousin Teacher Teenager Doctor
Student Friend Colleague Singer
  • If you know the gender of animals or things. You can use he, she or it for animals.
  • Where is the cat, she is in the garden.
  • The Titanic was a great ship. But she hit an iceberg and sank.
  • I love my car. She (the car) is my greatest passion
  • France is popular with her (France’s) neighbors at the moment.
  • I traveled from Pakistan to England; She (the England) is a great country.
  • It is possible to make the distinction for these neutral words by adding the words male or female.
  • Mar yam is a female doctor.
  • No, he is not my boyfriend. He is just a male friend.
  • I have three female cousins and two male cousins.

There are three ways of forming feminine nouns

  • By using enter different words as
Boy Girl Bull Cow
King Queen Cock Hen
Brother Sister Dog Bitch
Drake Duck Drone Bee
Father Mother Horse Mare
Sir Madam Son Daughter
Uncle Aunt
  • By adding a syllable “ess”
Author Authoress Count Countess
Heir Heiress Jew Jewess
Lion Lioness Manager Manageress
Patron Patroness Poet Poetess

2 (a) adding ess after dropping the vowel of the Masculine Gender

Actor Actress Benefactor Benefactress
Conductor Conductress Founder Foundress
Hunter Huntress Instructor Instructress
Duke Duchess Prince Princess
Tempter Temptress Tiger Tigress
Waiter Waitress Master Mistress

 

  • By placing some letters before or after Masculine gender.
Man Woman Hero Heroine
Servant Maid Servant Uncle Aunt
Husband Wife Waiter Waitress
Headmaster Headmistress Peacock Peahen
8. Collection Nouns

“A collective noun is the word used for a group of person, animals or things”.

Examples:

Faculty (Group of teachers)

Class (Group of student)

They talk about group of things.

  • A Crowed of people
  • A pride of lions
  • A bunch of grapes
  • A bunch of bananas
  • A bowl of rice
  • A flock of sheep
  • A forest of trees
  • A bunch of keys
  • A cloud of dust
  • A library of books
  • A class of students
  • A choir of singers
  • A gang of thieves
  • A cloud of bats
  • A board of directors
  • A train of camels
  • A pack of cards
  • Fleet of cars
  • Herd of cattle
  • A network of computer
  • A herd of cows
  • A pack of dogs
  • A trip of goat

Further of examples

  • Army, audience, crowed, family, Parliament,
9. Compound Nouns:
  • A compound noun is a noun that is made up two or more words.
  • A word can be combined to from compound nouns. These are very common and new combinations are invented almost daily. They normally have two parts. The first part tells us what kind of object or person it is, or what its purpose is. The second part indentifies the object or person in question. “Compound nouns often have meaning that is different, or more specific, then the two separate words”.
First Part: type & purpose Second Part: Who or What Compound Noun
Police Man Policeman
Boy Friend Boyfriend
Water Tank Water tank
Dining Table Dining table
Washing Machine Washing machine
Tooth Brush Toothbrush
Clean Cut Clean cut

Three forms of compound nouns:      

  • One word:

Football, Toothbrush, Sunglass

  • Separate Words:

Swimming Pool, bus stop, full moon

  • Hyphenated Words:

Mother-in-law, dry-cleaning, self-esteem

We have noticed that the either as s single word, as a word with a hyphen, or as two words. There are no clear rules about this.

A good rule of thumb is to write the most common compound nouns as one word, and the others as two words.

The elements in a compound noun are very diverse part of speech.

Noun + Noun Compound Noun
Tooth + brush Toothbrush
Mouse + pad Mouse pad
Air + ticket Air ticket
Rain + bow Rainbow
Snow + man Snowman
Foot + ball Football
Bed + room Bedroom
Water + tank Water tank
Motor + cycle Motorcycle

 

Noun + verb Compound noun
Rain + fall Rain fall
Hair + cut Haircut
Printer + cartridge Printer cartridge
Train + spotting Train spotting
Noun + adverb Compound noun
Hanger + on Hanger on
Passes + by Passes by
Verb + noun Compound noun
Driving licence Driving licence
Swimming + pool Swimming pool
Adverb + noun Compound noun
On + looker On looker
By + stander By stander
Adjective + verb Compound noun
Dry + cleaning Dry cleaning
Public + speaking Public speaking
Adverb + verb Compound noun
Over + throw Over throw
Up + turn Upturn
In + put Input
Adjective + noun Compound noun
Loud + speaker Loudspeaker
Sweet + heart Sweetheart
Hot + dog Hotdog
Fast + food Fast food
Noble + man Nobleman
Black + board Black board

What is a gerund:

A gerund is a verb that acts as a noun. It is formed by adding “ING” to the verb.

Verb + ing Gerund noun
Walk + ing Walking
Sleep + ing Sleeping
Write + ing Writing
Study + ing Studying
Play + ing Playing

 

Gerund + noun Compound noun
Writing + desk Writing desk
Walking + stick Walking stick
Working + day Working day
Learning + material Learning material
Waiting + list Waiting list
Spelling + book Spelling book
  • Countable compound nouns
Singular Plural
Son in low Sons in low
Tooth brush Tooth brushes
Runner up Runners up

Singular or plural only compound nouns

Compound nouns that are either the singular or plural form.

Singular Plural
Pocket money Fabric scissors
Junk food Human rights
Birth control Traffic lights
Green house Sunglasses
Death penalty Denim jeans
Food poisoning Breaking news

A greenhouse = place where we grow plants (Compound Noun)

A green house = house painted green (adjective and noun)

A bluebird = type of bird (Compound Noun)

A Blue bird = a bird with blue clear (adjective and noun)