What is Noun?
- Singular and Plural Noun
- Common and Proper Noun
- Countable Uncountable Noun
- Abstract Noun
- Material Noun
- Concrete Noun
- Gender Noun
- Collection Noun
- Compound Noun
“Noun refers to words that are used to name of person, things, animals, places, ideas and events”.
Types of Noun Complete Guide Step by Step
1. Singular and Plurals Noun:
When a Noun refers to single person, things, place, idea and animal it is called singular Noun.
When a noun refers to many persons things, animals and ideas, it is called plural Noun.
Most singulars nouns from the plural by adding “S”
|A Car||Two Cars|
|A lamp||Two Lamps|
|A Hat||Two Hats|
|A Cup||Two Cups|
A singular noun ending in S, X, Z, CH, SH makes the Plurals by adding ES
|A Rose||Two Roses|
A singular noun ending in Consonant and then “Y” makes the Plural by dropping the “Y” and adding ‘’IES’’ with out (A,E,I,O,U)
Y after Vowel (A, E, I, O, U)
Add “S” after Vowel
Boy Boys Day Days
Nouns ending in “F” add “S” and “Ves”
Roof Roofs thief Thieves Wife Wives Shelf Shelves
Knife Knives Wolf Wolves Leaf Leaves
Nouns ending in “O”
Disco Discos Piano Pianos Photo Photos
Tomato Tomatoes Potato Potatoes Hero Heroes
Few nouns change their singular by replacing the inside vowel to from a plural.
Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural
Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb
Some nouns have a fixed plural form and take plural verb
2. Common and Proper nouns
- A noun that refers to specific (usually a one of a kind) of item, or particular name of person, place, or things. Proper nouns always start with a capital letter no matter where it occurs in a sentence or not.
Rahim is a good student.
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.
America is developed country.
Rahim, Islamabad, or America is the Proper Nouns because it refers to particular name of person, place or things.
Proper nouns are normally used with:
- Days of the Week: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday
- Months: Janvary, February, March,
- Name of Companies: Amazon, coca Cola, Google
- Countries, towns: England, Canada, Francisco
- Books, Films, or prizes: the bible the noble prize
- Name of Peoples: Tim smith, Jennie Baker
- Famous People: Napoleon, Shakespeare, Quid e azam
- A common noun is the word used for a class of person, place, or things.
- A common noun is a general name for the same kind of things, person, or place.
- Common noun do no refers to any particular things, person, or place. Common nouns are spelled in small letters.
Ali is my friend.
Kashmir is beautiful city.
K2 is a highest mountain.
Friend, City, or Mountain is a common noun because it is used for common things, place, or person.
|Common Noun||Proper Noun|
|Document||Declaration of independence|
|Teacher||The Holy Prophet|
3. Countable and uncountable Nouns
- Nouns are word can be counted. They have a singular and plural form. They usually refer to things.
- Countable nouns are things we can count using Number.
- Separate object, People and Concepts. We can count countable nouns. They are separate objects.
Most countable nouns become plural by adding “S” at the end of the word.
|Student||Students||One dog||Two dogs|
|One idea||Two ideas||Shop||Shops|
The Singular form can use the determiner “A” or “AN” if you want to ask about the Quantity of a countable Nouns, you ask “How many”? combined with plural countable noun.
We can use the article “a/an” in a singular:
- I own a house
- I have an apple
- He served me a sandwich
Countable noun is a singular and a plural form.
The apple is very nice.
The apples are very nice.
- Anything that cannot be counted is an uncountable noun. Therefore, they only have a singular form.
- Uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot count with Numbers. They are in a liquids, powers and gases shape.
- Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc, we cannot divide into separate elements.
- Uncountable nouns are the names of materials, liquids concepts, collection mess objects without boundaries. The have a singular form.
We cannot use “a/an” with these nouns to express a quantity of an uncountable noun, use a word or expression like “Some”, a lot of, much, a bit of, a great deal of, also use an exact measurement like a cup of, 1 kg of, an hour of,
If you ask about the quantity of an uncountable to ask, “How Much”?
- There has been a lot of research into the causes of this disease.
- He gave me a great deal of advice before my interview.
- Can you give me some information about the uncountable noun.
- He did not have much
- Measure 1 cup of water 300 gm
- How much rice do you want.
- He gave me some good advice.
- Can I have Some
Some nouns are both Countable and uncountable.
- You have got some hairs on your T shirt. (there might be 5 or 6 of them)
- Your hair looks lovely (here you think of the hair style).
- Bowl of rice
- Slice of bread
- Piece of cheese
Sometime we use uncountable noun like a countable noun
Water is an uncountable noun because it is liquid. We cannot count water.
Do you want some water. We don’t say
Do you want a Water.
I have talk about a glass of water. Then we can says
Do you want a glass of water.
It is because the glass is a countable.
Uncountable noun only have a singular form. Therefore, we use singular verb.
The Pasta is very nice. Correct
The pasta are very nice. Wrong
The news is good. Correct
The news are good. Wrong
4. Abstract nouns
- An abstract noun is the name given to a quality, a state or a concept and feeling or actions.
- It refers to things that we can neither touch nor see, though we can think of them.
- An abstract noun is a quality or something that we can only think of rather them as something that we can see, touch.
Words like clever, honesty, happiness etc.
We can describe a person using qualities like brave, strong, or wise, courage, creativity, friendship, happiness, honesty, kindness, love and truth
We can also think of these quality like, bravery, strength and wisdom independence of any particular person or things.
Abstract nouns are formed using adjective, verb and common noun.
|Common Nouns||Abstract nouns|
- He was given an award for his courage.
- His art teacher happy with his creativity.
- Your friendship is one of my favorite point of the day.
- She thought that the happiness was the most imported things in life.
5. Material Noun:
- Material Nun are names of materials from which things are made.
- Substance a material or an ingredient we can see and touch which is used formatting things.
- Material noun is a type of common noun
Water (made up of tea)
Paper, iron, gold, coal, wheat and rubber
Material noun can be grouped into the following categories.
Materials: iron gold platinum wood plastic and paper
Products measured in bulk: tea sugar rice wheat
Geological bodies: mud sad
Material Phenomena: rain dew cloud frost might
Items Manufactured: Clothes paint chairs house
6. Concrete Nouns
- Refers to the name of something or someone that we experience through our sense sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste
- It is a type of common noun.
Cat, boy, table, chair, bus and building.
Difference between concrete nouns and abstract noun:
- Concrete noun refers to the name of something or someone that we experience through our senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste.
- Abstract noun is the name given to a quality a state or a concept. It refers to things that we cannot touch or see. We can think of them.
|Concrete nouns||Abstract nouns|
7. Gendered Nouns
- Noun that distinguishes between male and female’s called
- There are three genders properly so called: Masculine, Feminine and Neuter. The distinction of male and female in nature is called Sex. The distinction between Masculine and Feminine in word is called
- Nouns answer the questions “what is it” and “who is it” They give the names to things, people, and places.
- Gender is a system of differentiating nouns and pronouns as Masculine, Feminine, Neuter or Common.
A Noun that denotes a male animal is called Masculine gender.
A noun that donates a female animal is called a feminine gender.
A noun that denotes a gender that is either a female or male is called Common Gender.
A noun that denotes a gender that is neither a female nor a male is called as a neural gender.
- In general there is no distinction between Masculine, Feminine in English nouns. However, gender is sometimes show by different from or different words when referring to people or animals.
- Many Nouns that refer to people’s role and jobs can be used for either a Masculine or Feminine.
- If you know the gender of animals or things. You can use he, she or it for animals.
- Where is the cat, she is in the garden.
- The Titanic was a great ship. But she hit an iceberg and sank.
- I love my car. She (the car) is my greatest passion
- France is popular with her (France’s) neighbors at the moment.
- I traveled from Pakistan to England; She (the England) is a great country.
- It is possible to make the distinction for these neutral words by adding the words male or female.
- Mar yam is a female doctor.
- No, he is not my boyfriend. He is just a male friend.
- I have three female cousins and two male cousins.
There are three ways of forming feminine nouns
- By using enter different words as
- By adding a syllable “ess”
2 (a) adding ess after dropping the vowel of the Masculine Gender
- By placing some letters before or after Masculine gender.
8. Collection Nouns
“A collective noun is the word used for a group of person, animals or things”.
Faculty (Group of teachers)
Class (Group of student)
They talk about group of things.
- A Crowed of people
- A pride of lions
- A bunch of grapes
- A bunch of bananas
- A bowl of rice
- A flock of sheep
- A forest of trees
- A bunch of keys
- A cloud of dust
- A library of books
- A class of students
- A choir of singers
- A gang of thieves
- A cloud of bats
- A board of directors
- A train of camels
- A pack of cards
- Fleet of cars
- Herd of cattle
- A network of computer
- A herd of cows
- A pack of dogs
- A trip of goat
Further of examples
- Army, audience, crowed, family, Parliament,
9. Compound Nouns:
- A compound noun is a noun that is made up two or more words.
- A word can be combined to from compound nouns. These are very common and new combinations are invented almost daily. They normally have two parts. The first part tells us what kind of object or person it is, or what its purpose is. The second part indentifies the object or person in question. “Compound nouns often have meaning that is different, or more specific, then the two separate words”.
|First Part: type & purpose||Second Part: Who or What||Compound Noun|
Three forms of compound nouns:
- One word:
Football, Toothbrush, Sunglass
- Separate Words:
Swimming Pool, bus stop, full moon
- Hyphenated Words:
Mother-in-law, dry-cleaning, self-esteem
We have noticed that the either as s single word, as a word with a hyphen, or as two words. There are no clear rules about this.
A good rule of thumb is to write the most common compound nouns as one word, and the others as two words.
The elements in a compound noun are very diverse part of speech.
|Noun + Noun||Compound Noun|
|Tooth + brush||Toothbrush|
|Mouse + pad||Mouse pad|
|Air + ticket||Air ticket|
|Rain + bow||Rainbow|
|Snow + man||Snowman|
|Foot + ball||Football|
|Bed + room||Bedroom|
|Water + tank||Water tank|
|Motor + cycle||Motorcycle|
|Noun + verb||Compound noun|
|Rain + fall||Rain fall|
|Hair + cut||Haircut|
|Printer + cartridge||Printer cartridge|
|Train + spotting||Train spotting|
|Noun + adverb||Compound noun|
|Hanger + on||Hanger on|
|Passes + by||Passes by|
|Verb + noun||Compound noun|
|Driving licence||Driving licence|
|Swimming + pool||Swimming pool|
|Adverb + noun||Compound noun|
|On + looker||On looker|
|By + stander||By stander|
|Adjective + verb||Compound noun|
|Dry + cleaning||Dry cleaning|
|Public + speaking||Public speaking|
|Adverb + verb||Compound noun|
|Over + throw||Over throw|
|Up + turn||Upturn|
|In + put||Input|
|Adjective + noun||Compound noun|
|Loud + speaker||Loudspeaker|
|Sweet + heart||Sweetheart|
|Hot + dog||Hotdog|
|Fast + food||Fast food|
|Noble + man||Nobleman|
|Black + board||Black board|
What is a gerund:
A gerund is a verb that acts as a noun. It is formed by adding “ING” to the verb.
|Verb + ing||Gerund noun|
|Walk + ing||Walking|
|Sleep + ing||Sleeping|
|Write + ing||Writing|
|Study + ing||Studying|
|Play + ing||Playing|
|Gerund + noun||Compound noun|
|Writing + desk||Writing desk|
|Walking + stick||Walking stick|
|Working + day||Working day|
|Learning + material||Learning material|
|Waiting + list||Waiting list|
|Spelling + book||Spelling book|
- Countable compound nouns
|Son in low||Sons in low|
|Tooth brush||Tooth brushes|
|Runner up||Runners up|
Singular or plural only compound nouns
Compound nouns that are either the singular or plural form.
|Pocket money||Fabric scissors|
|Junk food||Human rights|
|Birth control||Traffic lights|
|Death penalty||Denim jeans|
|Food poisoning||Breaking news|
A greenhouse = place where we grow plants (Compound Noun)
A green house = house painted green (adjective and noun)
A bluebird = type of bird (Compound Noun)
A Blue bird = a bird with blue clear (adjective and noun)